On August 10, 2018, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker signed into law a piece of legislation entitled “An Act Relative to Economic Development in the Commonwealth.” This new legislation brings long-awaited non-compete reform to Massachusetts, and lays out some new guidelines for business owners to consider when determining whether or not to require employees to sign true non-compete agreements that would prohibit a departing employee from engaging in competitive activities. Continue Reading What Business Owners Should Know About Massachusetts’ New Non-Compete Law
Mark J. Tarallo is a member of the Business & Finance Department, and Mergers & Acquisitions and Entrepreneur practice groups.
Mark represents entities ranging from startups to publicly listed international businesses. He works closely with clients to negotiate, draft and review all documents in connection with venture capital financing, mergers & acquisitions, and securities offerings.
Additionally, Mark advises clients on general corporate matters including securities, governance, intellectual property, licensing, employment and litigation. He also assists clients such as private funds and investment advisers in connection with regulatory and securities matters.
As the M&A market stays active, more and more family-owned businesses are selling to third parties. Many of these transactions involve sophisticated buyers, who spend a lot of time, money and effort on due diligence of a seller. While there are many elements that go into a successful sale of a business, sellers can take a few steps prior to starting on the sale process to help ensure smoother negotiations (and hopefully a smooth transaction). Continue Reading Thinking of Selling Your Family Business? Some Preliminary Steps.
Many operating businesses in Massachusetts are set up as limited liability companies rather than corporations. Limited liability companies can engage in many of the same activities as corporations, including participating in M&A transactions as both buyers and sellers. The rights of members in LLC’s engaging in such transaction are set forth in M.G.L. c. 156C, the Massachusetts Limited Liability Company Act (the “Act”). Generally, a member in a Massachusetts limited liability company who dissents from a merger has limited rights under Section 60 (b) of the Act, to resign and receive the distributions owed in respect of the member’s interest ( “The exclusive remedy of a member of a domestic limited liability company, which has voted to consolidate or to merge with another entity under the provisions of [the Act], who objects to such consolidation or merger, shall be the right to resign as a member and to receive any distribution with respect to his limited liability company interest, as provided in sections thirty-one to thirty-seven, inclusive.”) Continue Reading MA SJC Rules on Merger-Related Fiduciary Duties
In a recent decision, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that governmental entities have great flexibility to terminate agreements with contractors where the agreement includes a “termination for convenience” provision. Many family-owned enterprises do business with the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or other governmental entities, and should be aware that the parties to those arrangements will have greater freedom to terminate these arrangements as a result of this decision. Continue Reading MA SJC Rules on “Termination for Convenience” Provisions
Many family businesses run smoothly for years, until the business is sold or passed on to the next generation(s). There are, however, those circumstances where the family or closely-held business runs into a deadlock among management where the parties are unable to agree on a course of action to move the business forward. In these circumstances, one party can petition the appropriate court for a judicial dissolution of the business. The other party may be opposed to this prospect, but can do little other than defend the claim or try to work out a solution with the party filing suit. Owners of family or closely-held businesses should be familiar with the applicable judicial dissolution standards and should try to include language in a shareholder agreement or operating agreement to avoid this problem, especially where management and stockholdings are divided 50/50. An ongoing deadlock can be severely damaging to a business, taking time, attention and funding away from other matters. Continue Reading Family Business Owners Should Be Aware Of Statutory “Deadlock” Provisions
As 2018 looks to be a favorable M&A environment, many business owners may come to the conclusion that it is time to sell the family business. While it is true that some businesses sell as a result of an offer that comes “out of the blue,” the reality is that most sales occur as a result of a well-designed process intended to maximize value for the seller. Sellers should consider allocating considerable time preparing for a sale, sometimes as much as a year. A well-run sale process can take considerable time as well. The time is well-spent though, as thorough preparation and an organized sale process typically lead to higher valuations and quality buyers. Continue Reading Thinking of Selling? Start Early, Build Your Team
After a somewhat choppy 2017, many experts are calling for a busy 2018 in the M&A space. The Intralinks Deal Flow Predictor Report suggests that the pace of M&A activity will increase in 2018, based in large part on “a combination of gradual acceleration in global economic growth, low inflation in advanced and emerging economies, buoyant asset markets and low-interest rates that continue to bolster the M&A markets.” While there are concerns that could impact the potential increase in deal flow (such as a rise in economic protectionism or a global equity sell-off) the prevailing view is that the positive conditions for M&A activity will continue to rule the day and drive increasing dealmaking. Continue Reading Expect A Busy 2018 On The M&A Front
All employers should maintain an employee handbook or similar policy statement that clearly sets out the employer’s position on drug and alcohol use. While federal laws relating to marijuana possession and use have not changed, many states have revised their statutes to legalize, decriminalize, or otherwise permit marijuana possession and use. This has caused some confusion for employers, who must balance the conflicting state and federal rules.
Over thirty states have enacted legislation allowing marijuana use in certain situations. In some states (California and Massachusetts, for example), medical and recreational use is permitted. In many other states, such as Connecticut and Rhode Island, only medical use is permitted. A number of states have also adopted legislation that specifically protects marijuana users from termination from employment based solely on a positive test for marijuana. Continue Reading High Time for Massachusetts Employers to Consider a Marijuana Use Policy
In a recent decision, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that directors of a corporation owe a fiduciary duty to the corporation itself, and not to the stockholders of the corporation (as is the case in Delaware, among other states). In Int’l Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Loc. No. 129 Benefit Fund v. Tucci, SJC-12137 (Mass. Mar. 6, 2017), the Court ruled that the directors of EMC Corporation did not breach their fiduciary duties to the corporation when they approved the sale of EMC as a whole, versus selling off the constituent operations individually, which might have brought a higher price. The Court relied on the plain language of M.G.L ch. 156D, Section 8.30, which provides that a director shall discharge his duties “in a manner the director reasonably believes to be in the best interests of the corporation.”
All too often, family businesses are run in an “informal” fashion, with insufficient attention being paid to corporate formalities, including requirements set forth in a corporation’s bylaws. The Delaware Chancery Court recently ruled in Rainbow Mountain, Inc. vs. Begeman (March 23, 2017), that even in a family-owned business where all of the parties to a dispute are family members, the bylaws will control corporate actions.
In Rainbow Mountain, the defendant Terry Begeman was a member of the family that had founded the corporation. After a falling out among the family members, the group that held a controlling interest sought to remove Terry from the board of directors of the corporation, and in 2008 voted him off of the board of directors. Terry refused to accept this removal, and in 2014 the corporation filed an action for declaratory judgment seeking to confirm that Terry had been removed from the board.